Inventories of black and organic carbon aerosol
to support future emission projections

Energy Modeling Forum: BC/OC Subgroup
This page supported by the U.S. EPA Climate Office 
Bond group – University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign


[Input spreadsheet] [Submit by e-mail]

Background: Aerosols and inventories

Aerosols have significant climatic effects, and need to be included in present-day climate modeling in order to accurately represent radiative forcing. The Bond et al. [2004] inventory of black and organic carbon calculates emissions of primary carbonaceous aerosols based on the prevalence of estimated combustion technologies in different world regions. This is a fairly detailed “bottom-up” approach that accounts for the physical basis of emission differences; it is needed because emissions of carbonaceous aerosols are highly technology-dependent, varying by orders of magnitude for the same fuel burned in different technologies. Streets et al. [2004] extended that method to project emissions in the near future, representing changes in the technology mix and emission factors.

Long-Term Modeling

For long-term climate modeling (e.g. to 2100), projections of how aerosol forcing changes over time would also be useful. We cannot pretend to predict technology that far into the future. Instead, we offer present-day emission coefficients (emission per fuel burned) to modelers who conduct long-term simulations that incorporate relationships with economic and other drivers. We obtain regionally-specific values of present-day coefficients by adding the emission factors of technologies within the region, weighted by the prevalence of fuel consumed.

In the simplest approach, a modeler could apply these coefficients to predicted fuel consumption. We don’t advise this approach because technologies will certainly change. More commonly, emission coefficients would be tied to economic drivers. 


Each modeling group has its own way of aggregating data, and the grouping of both consumption types and regions affects the present-day emission coefficient. The input spreadsheet allows you to define which countries your region contains, and which end-uses your economic sectors contain. We will send you the emission coefficients after you fill this spreadsheet out and submit it.

Download the input spreadsheet

When it’s filled out, send it to Tami Bond.


Bond, T.C.; Streets, D.G.; Yarber, K.F.; Nelson, S.M.; Woo, J.-H.; Klimont, Z. A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion. J. Geophys. Res. 2004, 109 , D14203, doi:10.1029/2003JD003697.

Streets, D.G.; Bond, T.C.; Lee, T.; Jang, C. On the future of carbonaceous aerosol emissions. J. Geophys. Res. 2004, 109 (D24), doi:10.1029/2004JD004902.

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